What We Do

Neurobiology of Spatial Behavior

To study the neural correlates of spatial navigation, we make use of techniques that allow monitoring of large numbers of neurons simultaneously (10s to 100s) while animals are engaged in specific spatial behaviors. To do this, trainees fabricate electrode arrays that can be adjusted to a specific anatomical targets. Neural signals are correlated with behavior in spatial navigation and memory tasks.

Example cell activity from in vivo electrophysiology experiments are shown on the left in the figure below (from Berkowitz et al 2020). The true vs. decoded head angle from a population of simultaneously recorded head direction cells is shown on the right in the figure below (from Xu et al 2019).

Cells2


Memory and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

A recent focus of the Clark lab is in the investigation of neurobiological changes corresponding to memory decline in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (reviewed in Harvey et al 2019). Our recent work has shown that animals exposed to a moderate amount of alcohol prenatally can accurately perform sensory discriminations between complex objects, but are impaired when required to discriminate between objects on the basis of spatial location in the environment (Sanchez et al 2019). Exposure to alcohol prenatally can result in a number of structural and synaptic alterations to hippocampal circuitry (e.g., Madden et al 2020). Consistent with this previous work, we recently found that hippocampal place cell activity is less spatially and directionally specific after moderate prenatal alcohol exposure, thereby pointing to a potential systems-level mechanisms for memory deficits after developmental alcohol exposure (Harvey et al 2020).

FASD


Spatial Navigation, Anxiety, and Alzheimer’s disease

The Clark lab is interested in the neurobiological changes in Alzheimer’s disease that accompany impairments in spatial navigation (reviewed in Berkowitz et al 2020). Towards this aim, we have recently characterized the spatial behavior of a novel transgenic rat model of Alzheimer’s disease (TgF344-AD) in the Morris water task. We have determined that deficits in the accuracy of swim trajectories (i.e., both the directional and spatial specificity of swim paths) by transgenic AD rats is expressed between 7 and 10 months of age (Berkowitz et al 2018). In collaboration with Dr. Nathan Pentkowski, we are additionally investigating the neural basis of anxiety-like behaviors which are expressed at the earliest stages of pathogenesis, and precede spatial memory deficits, in the TgF344-AD rat model of Alzheimer’s disease (Pentkowski et al 2018).

watertask